Tag Archives: Bacteria

Fact Check: US Has Biological Warfare Labs In South Korea?!

Does US Have Biological Warfare Labs In South Korea?!

Is the US conducting biological warfare experiments at their secret labs in South Korea?!

Take a look at the viral claim, and find out what the facts really are!


Claim : US Has Biological Warfare Labs In South Korea!

Official Chinese state media outlets like Xinhua,  People’s Daily, China Daily, and their 50 Cent Army (wumao, 五毛) are claiming that the US is conducting biological warfare experiments at their secret labs in South Korea.

Note : It’s a long post, so please feel free to skip to the next section for the facts…

China Daily Fri, Apr 15, 2022

US biolabs create fear in South Korea

SEOUL — South Koreans are gripped with fear over the prospect that US biological weapons laboratories operated by the US Forces Korea, or USFK, will transform the country into Washington’s “overseas hub” for biological warfare experiments.

The United States has flouted international conventions by steadily advancing its germ warfare program in the country. It sees South Korea as a country “friendly” enough to let the US military test lethal toxins without institutional hurdles.


Truth : US Does NOT Have Biological Warfare Labs In South Korea!

Now, I must first point out that it is impossible to prove a negative – that something that doesn’t exists, doesn’t actually exist.

But based on a complete lack of evidence, this is yet another example of Chinese propaganda warfare, and here are the reasons why…

Fact #1 : This Story Has Been Repeated Since 2020

A quick check shows that the Chinese state media have been promoting the story of the US biological warfare labs in South Korea since April 2020, if not earlier.

So this story isn’t new. It was repeated in July 2020, and then in August 2021, before the current slew of coverage in March and April 2022.

Fact #2 : No Evidence Of US Biological Warfare Lab In South Korea

Despite waxing lyrical about the US military conducting biological warfare experiments in their South Korea labs, the Chinese state media offered ZERO evidence.

There is no evidence of biological warfare experiments being conducted in South Korea, and there is no evidence of US setting up laboratories for the research and development of such weapons.

Fact #3 : Anthrax Was Sent To 9 US States, Australia + Canada Too

Chinese state media claimed that US biological warfare experimentation was “exposed” when live anthrax samples were sent to the Osan Air Base in South Korea.

The truth is – the same anthrax samples were sent to 51 laboratories in nine US states, as well as Australia, Canada and South Korea.

So the claim that US sent anthrax to South Korea because they let the US military “test lethal toxins without institutional hurdles” is nonsense.

This incident was covered widely by the global press, so it is peculiar that Chinese state media would (intentionally?) misinform their readers.

Fact #4 : Anthrax Samples Were Used For Tests

These anthrax samples were mailed to those laboratories as part of ongoing efforts to develop field tests for anthrax.

These tests are usually conducted using dead samples of anthrax, because live anthrax would obviously be a biosecurity risk.

Fact #5 : Anthrax Samples Were Supposed To Be Dead

What the Chinese state media won’t tell you is that those anthrax samples were supposed to be dead.

In March 2014, the Dugway Proving Grounds – a US Department of Defense laboratory which conducts biosecurity research – irradiated a batch of anthrax samples with gamma rays to kill them.

In April 2015, they mailed the “dead” anthrax samples to 51 labs in the US, Canada, Australia and South Korea, by commercial postal services because the samples were supposed to be completely “dead”.

This incident was covered widely by the global press, so it is peculiar that Chinese state media would (intentionally?) misinform their readers.

Fact #6 : US Military Was Unaware Anthrax Samples Were Active

What the Chinese state media will also “forget” to tell you is that the US military was unaware that the anthrax samples were still active.

It was a commercial laboratory in Maryland that alerted the Pentagon on 22 May 2015, after they discovered that their sample had some active spores.

As CDC spokesperson Jason McDonald explained, the samples were quickly transferred to the CDC :

The samples are being carefully transferred to the CDC in Atlanta. They are starting to arrive, but cautioned that the samples need five more days to grow before officials can determine if they contain live anthrax.

While this was a deeply concerning accident that could have been disastrous, it was most definitely not an attempt to conduct biological warfare experiments in South Korea.

This incident was covered widely by the global press, so it is peculiar that Chinese state media would (intentionally?) misinform their readers.

Officials from the South Korea-U.S. joint working group conduct an on-site inspection of a laboratory at Osan Air Base, Gyeonggi Province, Thursday, about 70 days after the Pentagon admitted that live anthrax samples were accidently delivered there. / Joint Press Corps

Fact #7 : Anthrax Sample In South Korea Was Destroyed

The anthrax sample in South Korea was quickly destroyed, even though there was no evidence it was still active – the batch was simply assumed to have not been sufficiently irradiated.

The military destroyed the anthrax on Wednesday after the sample, which was thought to be inactive, was suspected of being live. None of the personnel in contact showed signs of exposure. But they were given exams, antibiotics, and in some cases, vaccinations.

The military stresses there was no risk to the public. The exposure happened in a contained lab environment on the Osan Air Base, which is 65 miles south of Seoul. It’s one of a number of bases that houses the estimated 28,000 American military personnel based in South Korea.

Fact #8 : No One Got Sick

Four lab employees in the states of Texas, Delaware and Wisconsin, as well as 22 military and civilian personnel at the Osan Air Base, were given antibiotics as a precaution.

However, no one got sick from the potential exposure to the anthrax spore samples. I have to stress – there was no actual evidence that anyone got infected by those anthrax samples.

Fact #9 : Anthrax Is Naturally Found In Soil

Despite its fearsome reputation, anthrax is a disease caused by bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis, that is naturally found in soil, and commonly affects domestic and wild animals.

While people can get infected by breathing in its spores, it usually does not spread from human to human.

As long as the anthrax samples were not being weaponised, the US did not contravene the Biological Weapons Convention.

The use of dead anthrax samples to develop or improve or certify tests for anthrax most certainly do not contravene the Biological Weapons Convention.

Fact #10 : USFK Must Report To Korea CDC When Importing Biological Agents

The South Korea-US Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) was revised in 2015 to mandate that the USFK must file a report with the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) when importing any biological agents, including inactivated biological agents.

So the claim that the US military can bring in biological materials without informing the South Korean government is no longer true since 2015.

It is interesting that Chinese state media are still (intentionally?) not aware of that development…

Fact #10 : JUPITR Was Designed To Detect Biological Threats

Chinese state media claim that US biological warfare experiments are being conducted under the JUPITR program.

That’s nonsense, because JUPITR (Joint United States Forces Korea Portal and Integrated Threat Recognition) is a bio-surveillance program.

JUPITR was set up to monitor for biological threats posed by North Korea, using new bio-surveillance analysis equipment like :

  • BioFire Film Array, which can process Dry Filter Unit samples in 5-6 hours, instead of several days
  • IQuum Liat, which is a sample-to-result molecular diagnostic system
  • 3M Focus

To be clear – JUPITR does not involve biological warfare experiments.

JUPITR Biosurveillance Station

Fact #11 : JUPITR Ended Development In 2018

Interestingly, Chinese state media (intentionally?) forgot to mention that the development of the JUPITR program ended in 2018.

While its passive early warning capability remains in place, there has been no further work done on the JUPITR program since 2018.

So I have to wonder why they are still harping on JUPITR in 2022… Do they really have nothing new to report on?

Fact #11 : CENTAUR Was Designed To Detect Biological Threats

The Chinese state media also claim that US biological warfare experiments are being conducted under the CENTAUR program, which is also nonsense.

CENTAUR, which is short for “Capabilities to Enhance NBC Threat Awareness, Understanding & Response“, is an early warning system that looks for biological threats in South Korea.

To ensure that such a system works, the USFK (US Forces Korea) uses samples of dead pathogens (like the anthrax samples mentioned earlier) to test its detection capabilities.

The USFK has publicly announced that they do not use live samples for testing, after a few dozen people protested against the CENTAUR program.

We hold the health and safety of our service members, civilian employees, family members and Korean neighbors in the highest regard. The CENTAUR system is safe. USFK does not and has never used live agents for testing.

Photo credit : Yonhap

Fact #12 : Biological Warfare Banned In 183 Countries

Biological warfare has long been banned by the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) that was signed on 10 April 1972, and came into effect on 26 March 1975.

As of January 2022 – 183 countries have become party to this treaty, which means they agreed to stop development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons.

Fact #13 : Biological Labs Are Essential To All Countries

What the Chinese state media (intentionally?) don’t mention is that biological labs are a necessity in ALL countries.

Biological labs do not conduct biological warfare research, because that is banned in 183 countries under the BWC (see Fact #12).

Instead, they are on the forefront of a country’s biosecurity defences, and are absolutely essential in developing tests and cures (including vaccines) for new and emerging diseases, like the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.

In fact, China itself has a number of biological labs, including the Wuhan Institute of Virology, which is located right at the epicentre of the first COVID-19 outbreak.

It would be hypocritical and (intentionally?) misleading for Chinese state media to demonise biological labs. After all, they are ESSENTIAL to every country’s national security, including China’s.

Read more : Did GSK Make COVID-19 In Their Wuhan Lab?

This fake news appears to be part of the disinformation campaign conducted by the Chinese state media and their 50 Cent Army (wumao, 五毛).

Please help us fight such malicious fake news – SHARE this fact check far and wide!


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Dr. Adrian Wong has been writing about tech and science since 1997, even publishing a book with Prentice Hall called Breaking Through The BIOS Barrier (ISBN 978-0131455368) while in medical school.

He continues to devote countless hours every day writing about tech, medicine and science, in his pursuit of facts in a post-truth world.


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Did US Supreme Court Just Cancel Universal Vaccination?!

Did the US Supreme Court just cancel universal vaccination because the COVID-19 vaccines are unsafe?!

Find out what’s going on, and what the FACTS really are!


Claim : US Supreme Court Just Canceled Universal Vaccination!

Alternative health / news websites are YET AGAIN claiming that the Supreme Court just cancelled universal vaccination in the United States!

Allegedly, Senator Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and a group of scientists filed a lawsuit against Bill Gates, Dr. Fauci and Big Pharma, and they won!

It is a long essay, please SKIP to the next section for the FACTS!

URGENT: Supreme Court Has Canceled Universal Vaccination In The United States

Just Got this:

Has not been in the news anywhere. Looks like we are getting closer to the Final Scene in the movie.

Please ALERT everyone in the family, friends and relatives! BREAKING NEWS !

Supreme Court has canceled universal vaccination In the United States, the Supreme Court has canceled universal vaccination.

Bill Gates, US Chief Infectious Disease Specialist Fauci, and Big Pharma have lost a lawsuit in the US Supreme Court, failing to prove that all of their vaccines over the past 32 years have been safe for the health of citizens!


Truth : US Supreme Court Did Not Cancel Universal Vaccination!

It’s 2022, and yet again, the US Supreme Court just “cancelled” universal vaccination for the 4th or 5th time?

Just like COVID-19 variants, alternative health / news websites keep regurgitating this fake story for page views.

Let me repeat this yet again – this is FAKE NEWS!

Let’s break down the individual claims, and tell you what the FACTS really are :

Claim : Supreme Court canceled universal vaccination in the United States
Verdict : False

This claim is completely false, because the United States never mandated universal vaccination in the first place!

There is, therefore, no universal vaccination for the Supreme Court to overturn or cancel.

The government continues to have broad authority to make a vaccine mandatory during a public health crisis, as decided by the Supreme Court in their 1905 decision in Jacobson v. Massachusetts.

In 1922, the Supreme Court “settled that it is within the police power of a state to provide for compulsory vaccination” in their unanimous Zucht v. King decision.

However, compulsory or mandatory vaccination is quite different from universal vaccination.

Read more : Did Joe Biden Fire Over 200 Marines For Not Taking Vaccine?

Claim : Bill Gates, Dr. Fauci + Big Pharma Lost A Supreme Court Case
Verdict : False

Bill Gates, Dr. Fauci and Big Pharma were never part of any US Supreme Court case.

The new, ultra-conservative US Supreme Court did deal public health advocates a blow in 2020, when they ruled against the State of New York in Roman Catholic Diocese Of Brooklyn, New York v. Andrew M. Cuomo.

But that Supreme Court case had nothing to do with pharmaceutical companies, Bill Gates or even Dr. Fauci.

In that case, the Supreme Court ruled that the State of New York cannot bar people from gathering in churches and synagogues during the COVID-19 pandemic.

It was a ruling against New York’s lockdown measures, not vaccines.

I should also point out that all nine justices on the US Supreme Court were fully vaccinated by 5 May 2021, as confirmed by Supreme Court spokeswoman Kathleen Arberg.

Bill Gates, NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins and NIAID Director Dr. Anthony Fauci, May 2016, Photo Credit : Bill Branson

Claim : Robert F. Kennedy Jr. Is A Senator
Verdict : False

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. is not, and has never been, a US Senator.

The writer probably confused him with his illustrious father, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, who was assassinated in 1968.

Claim : Robert F. Kennedy Jr. Filed Supreme Court Lawsuit 
Verdict : False

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. never filed any lawsuit that was brought before the US Supreme Court.

In July 2019, he filed a lawsuit against the state of New York, to overturn a new state law that bars parents from refusing to vaccinate their children on religious grounds.

His family actually spoke out AGAINST him, calling him “an outlier in the Kennedy family“, and pointing out that his uncle President John F. Kennedy and his father, Robert F. Kennedy, both promoted vaccinations to stamp out preventable diseases.

He lost that lawsuit on 9 December 2019, after the New York state law was ruled constitutional.

That lawsuit was over the measles outbreak, and happened before the world first became aware of COVID-19 on 31 December 2019.

So it had NOTHING to do with COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccines.

Claim : mRNA Vaccine Changes Our Genetic Material
Verdict : False

It is physically impossible for vaccine mRNA to penetrate the cell nucleus, so it cannot possibly change the cell’s DNA.

The mRNA can only enter the cell cytoplasm, where it is taken up by the ribosomes to create the spike protein.

Vaccines based on the viral vector technology are the ones that enter the cell nucleus, but even that only affects a small number of cells, and does not become part of our DNA.

Vaccines do NOT integrate with our DNA. Vaccines will NOT turn us into GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms).

Claim : mRNA Vaccine Causes Irreversible Genetic Changes
Verdict : False

The mRNA instructions in an mRNA vaccine are automatically destroyed by the cell after use. Therefore, they can only exist for a short period of time.

As these mRNA instructions do NOT enter the cell nucleus or combine with our DNA, they cannot possibly cause “irreversible genetic changes”.

Claim : Genetic Engineering Is A Crime
Verdict : False

Genetic engineering is not a crime in any country. However, countries may set limits on what is permissible.

For example, the United States allows the genetic modification of human embryos for research purposes, but forbids its implantation without FDA’s approval.

Genetic engineering is being used to develop cures for diseases like :

  • acute and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
  • multiple myeloma
  • various muscular dystrophies
  • cystic fibrosis
  • cancers

There have already been a few approved gene therapies :

  • 2003 : Gendicine was approved in China for certain cancers
  • 2011 : Neovasculgen was approved in Russian for peripheral artery disease
  • 2012 : Glybera was approved in the US and the US for lipoprotein lipase deficiency

Claim : mRNA Vaccine Is Not A Vaccine
Verdict : False

A vaccine is simply any biological preparation that gives your body an active, acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.

The mRNA vaccine is a vaccine, even though it does not use the dead or attenuated (weakened) virus to provide the protection.

It works quite similarly to a viral vector vaccine, in that they both use our cells to create the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to trigger our body’s immune system.

Think of mRNA vaccines as instructions for your cells to make “enemy soldier puppets” for your immune system to train against.

Read more : Pfizer + Moderna mRNA Vaccines : How Do They Work?

Claim : COVID-19 Vaccines Cause Genetic Defects
Verdict : False

This is complete nonsense. COVID-19 vaccines do not cause genetic defects. Genetic defects are inherited, and cannot be introduced through a vaccine.

Genetic defects are also not caused by the inability to excrete toxins, which our liver and kidneys do every single day!

Vaccines also do not prevent the human body from excreting toxins. If that actually happened, vaccinated people would die within days… which obviously, did not happen.

Claim : Vaccinated People Will Die
Verdict : False

The claim by Michael Yeadon that 0.8% of people will die within 2 weeks of the first vaccination, and the rest will die within 2 years, is absolute nonsense.

Billions of people globally have been vaccinated against COVID-19, and there is no evidence of millions of people dying from the vaccines within two weeks of their first vaccination.

Frankly, if that’s true – they wouldn’t be alive to receive their second and third vaccinations, as billions of people have done.

Now that you know that this is yet another example of anti-vaccination FAKE NEWS, please SHARE this fact check with your family and friends.

Help stop the pandemic, by vaccinating against COVID-19!


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Dr. Adrian Wong has been writing about tech and science since 1997, even publishing a book with Prentice Hall called Breaking Through The BIOS Barrier (ISBN 978-0131455368) while in medical school.

He continues to devote countless hours every day writing about tech, medicine and science, in his pursuit of facts in a post-truth world.


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Fact Check : Singapore Autopsy Of COVID-19 Patients?

Did Singapore conduct an autopsy that confirmed COVID-19 is not a virus, but a bacterium that causes blood clotting?

Take a look at this new viral message, and find out what the FACTS really are!

Updated @ 2021-09-13 : Updated with Chinese version, and some small updates.

Updated @ 2021-08-23 : Updated with additional information.
Originally posted @ 2021-06-10


Claim : Autopsy In Singapore Confirmed COVID-19 Is Not A Virus!

This new WhatsApp message claims that an autopsy in Singapore has finally proven that COVID-19 is not a virus, but bacteria that causes blood clotting!

It’s rather long, so skip to the next section for the facts!

Singapore has become the first country in the world to perform an autopsy (post-mortem) for a Covid-19 corpse. After a thorough investigation, it was. discovered that Covid-19 does not exist as a virus, but rather a bacterium that has been exposed to radiation and causes human death by coagulation in the blood.

Covid-19 disease has been found to cause blood clotting, which causes blood clotting in humans and causes blood clotting in the veins, which makes it difficult for a person to breathe because the brain, heart and lungs cannot receive oxygen, causing people to die quickly.


Singapore COVID-19 Autopsy : Same Bullshit, Different Country

If you thought this viral message was familiar, that’s because it’s the SAME BULLSHIT that went viral earlier, just swapping out Russia for Singapore and some other changes.

Like 95% of viral messages on COVID-19 – this is yet another piece of FAKE NEWS based on some facts.

Let’s examine each claim and find out what the facts really are!

Fact #1 : First COVID-19 Autopsies Were Conducted In China

Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, and it was there that the first patients died, and where the first autopsies were conducted.

A forensics team from the Tongji Medical College of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology conducted the first autopsy of a COVID-19 patient on 16 February 2020.

By 24 February 2020, they conducted a total of nine autopsies – the results of which was published in the Journal of Forensic Medicine.

Fact #2 : There Is No WHO Protocol Forbidding Autopsies

There is no WHO protocol that forbids autopsies of any person who died from COVID-19, or any other disease.

The World Health Organisation is an international advisory body. It has no power over individual countries, and therefore, cannot ban post-mortem autopsies in any country.

In fact, the WHO itself published guidelines on how to perform autopsies and manage the bodies of dead COVID-19 patients.

Fact #3 : COVID-19 Is Caused By SARS-CoV-2 Virus

COVID-19 is technically not a virus.

COVID-19 is the disease caused by a new coronavirus, which was initially called 2019-nCoV, before being officially named as SARS-CoV-2.

Fact #4 : SARS-CoV-2 Is A Real Virus

We know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a real virus, because Chinese scientists isolated it and with the help of the University of Sydney in Australia, released a draft sequence of its genome on 10 January 2020.

The complete genome of approximately 30 kilobytes in length was published on 3 February 2020.

You can look at the entire SARS-CoV-2 viral genome that was released by Chinese scientists here.

SARS-CoV-2 genome diagram. Credit : Rohan Bir Singh, MD

Fact #5 : A Virus Is Not A Bacterium

Any half-decent student of biology can tell you that a virus is not a bacterium. They are completely different.

A virus, for example, is not even a living organism. It is just RNA or DNA encapsulated within a protein or lipid shell, and can only replicate within a host cell.

A bacterium, on the other hand, is a single-celled microorganism that can multiply by itself. It is also much more complex, with intracellular organelles and even extracellular appendages.

SARS-CoV-2 – the COVID-19 coronavirus – is a virus, not a bacterium.

Fact #6 : Apronik Does Not Exist

The drug, Apronik, that was mentioned in the viral message does not exist!

Fact #7 : There Is No Cure For COVID-19 (Right Now)

As of 13 September 2021, there is no cure for COVID-19. Only vaccines that can help prevent it.

Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, or anti-coagulant medication cannot cure COVID-19.

Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin cannot cure COVID-19.

Both aspirin and paracetamol are painkillers, and they won’t cure COVID-19.

Fact #8 : Low Dose Aspirin Does Not Prevent COVID-19

100 mg is actually a low dose for aspirin, which is normally given in the form of 325 mg or 500 mg tablets to adults.

Many people already take low-dose aspirin (also called baby aspirin) – usually 81 mg – to reduce the risk of heart attacks or strokes.

However, that has not prevented any of them from being infected with COVID-19.

Fact #9 : COVID-19 Can Cause Blood Clotting

COVID-19 can cause a hypercoagulable state, in which a severe inflammatory response triggers localised blood clotting which can become generalised.

It is especially common in severe COVID-19 disease, and has nothing to do with a bacterium, or radiation.

When a COVID-19 patient presents with blood clots, they are treated with blood thinners like aspirin and heparin.

Now that you know the truth, please SHARE this fact check with your family and friends, so they won’t get fooled by this fake news.

COVID-19 is a dangerous disease. Protect yourself and your family – get vaccinated against COVID-19!


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Support my work through a bank transfer /  PayPal / credit card!

Name : Adrian Wong
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Dr. Adrian Wong has been writing about tech and science since 1997, even publishing a book with Prentice Hall called Breaking Through The BIOS Barrier (ISBN 978-0131455368) while in medical school.

He continues to devote countless hours every day writing about tech, medicine and science, in his pursuit of facts in a post-truth world.


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Hand Sanitiser vs Soap : Which Should YOU Use?

To keep your hands clean of nasty bacteria and viruses, should you use a hand sanitiser or just soap and water?

Find out what are the advantages and disadvantages of both options, and WHICH we should use!


Hand Sanitiser vs Soap : Which Should YOU Use?

The double whammy of a particularly bad influenza season, and the new Wuhan coronavirus outbreak, has seen people stocking up on surgical masks as well as hand sanitisers.

But is it really better to use a hand sanitiser, or is plain soap and water good enough to stave off even the Wuhan coronavirus? Let’s find out…


Hand Sanitiser vs Soap : TLDR Summary

Here is a quick summary for those who just want to know what they should use :

  • Where possible, wash your hands with soap and water
  • When using soap and water, scrub your hands thoroughly with soap for at least 20 seconds before rinsing off with water
  • Only if soap and water are not available, should you resort to a hand sanitiser
  • Use a hand sanitiser with at least 60% alcohol – anything less will not kill microbes
  • When using a hand sanitiser, rub it all over the surfaces of your hands until they dry completely

For those who wish to learn more about why soap and water is better in most situations than hand sanitisers, please continue below.

We will also share with you when hand sanitisers will come in handy, and why you need to use one with high alcohol content!


Why Soap Is Superior To Hand Sanitiser In Most Situations

Reason #1 : Soap Cleans Your Hands!

The key reason why soap and water are better than using a hand sanitiser in most situations is that it removes bacteria and viruses, as well as dirt and grease, from your hands.

Another point to note – washing your hands also removes harmful chemicals like pesticides and heavy metals that you may have accidentally (and unknowingly) touched.

Reason #2 : Soap Eliminates Microbes That Hand Sanitisers Cannot Kill!

Alcohol-based hand sanitisers can quickly kill the number of microbes on your hands, but they have difficulty killing certain microbes (like Cryptosporidium, novovirus, and Clostridium difficile).

Washing your hands with soap and water is the only way to effectively get rid of those microbes.

This is why doctors and nurses do not use hand sanitisers but wash their hands with soap and water instead, before performing surgeries.

Reason #3 : Hand Sanitisers Are Not Effective With Dirty / Greasy Hands

Hand sanitisers work well in clinical settings like in a hospital, where your hands may come into contact with microbes but are otherwise not dirty or greasy.

Their effectiveness in killing microbes is greatly reduced when used on dirty or greasy hands. That is why it is recommended that you wash your hands with soap where possible.


Bar Soap vs Liquid Soap : Which Should You Use?

Using liquid soap is more hygienic because it is served from a sterile container. A bar soap, on the other hand, will harbour microbes from previous users.

Of course, when you wash your hands with bar soap, the microbes it transfers to your hands will get washed away.

So, using a bar soap is better than no soap at all. But where possible, use liquid soap.

More importantly, learn how to properly wash your hands using this pictorial guide!


Hand Sanitiser : When Should You Use One?

Now, the hand sanitiser has its uses. That’s why hospitals, airports, malls and other public places offer them.

Where soap and water are not readily available, or convenient to use, a hand sanitiser will quickly kill microbes on your hands.

Make sure you follow this guide, and properly rub the hand sanitiser all over your hands until they are both completely dry.


Hand Sanitiser : Alcohol Or Alcohol-FREE?

For a hand sanitiser to be effective at killing a significant amount of microbes, it needs to have an alcohol content of 60% to 95%.

Top healthcare authorities like the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the World Health Organisation (WHO), recommend using alcohol-based hand sanitisers over any other type of hand sanitiser.

This is partly because non-alcohol hand sanitisers use an antibiotic like Triclosan or Triclocarban, which not only exacerbate antibiotic resistance, but may also cause health problems with long-term use.

It is true that alcohol-based hand sanitiser can dry out your hands. But many alcohol-based hand sanitisers now include moisturisers to prevent that. Here are some options you can buy online :



United States

United Kingdom


If you are concerned about dry skin, just apply some moisturiser after rubbing the alcohol-based hand sanitiser dry on your hands.


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